Post(s) tagged with "WWII"
I’ll try to explain this comic which portraits more or less one century of Italian history:
1) Resisting to the oppressor:
- Mussolini (the main pig) conduct State and paramilitar repression of anti-fascism (squadrismo, murdering of MP Giacomo Matteotti; persecution to death in Italy and abroad of single personalities such as liberal Piero Gobetti or Socialist brothers Carlo and Nello Rosselli, foundation of the secret police OVRA)
- Fascist war waging in 1920s-1945 (genocide of Libyan people 1930-31, invasion of Abyssinian empire 1935-36, military support to the Spanish nationalists 1936-39, invasion of the Kingdom of Albania 1939, treasonable invasion of France 1940, persecution of Italian Jews [Video], invasion of Greece 1940-41, aggression of the Yugoslavian Kingdom 1941 and invasion of Slovenia and Montenegro, intervention in the invasion of Ussr 1942, foundation of a nazi puppet-State in Northern Italy 1943). May be I forgot something;
- RESISTENZA: spontaneous resistance movements 08/09/1943-25/04/1945 (Naples, Rome, partisans republic in Central and Northern Italy valleys)
- Mussolini is killed [it is controversial whether by partisans or by English secret services MI5] and on 29/04/45 hung in Milan (at Piazzale Loreto) and exposed to the public wrath (in the same place the year before Fascists hung 14 partisans).
- After the war armed people starts executions of well-known members of the dissolved PNF (National Fascist Party), particularly in the regions of Tuscany and Emilia Romagna (this would have been a sort of revolutionary justice uprising in memory of the war suffering and of the countless massacres perpetrated in the villages -such as Marzabotto and Sant’Anna di Stazzema- on the Appenines mountains by nazi-fascist squadrons in the last year of war)
2) Resisting to a public officer:
- Palmiro Togliatti (the frog-like executive), General Secretary of the PCI (Italian Comunist Party), doubtless under the direction of Stalin, as Minister of Justice in the post-war governments conceded a general amnesty for common crimes and for those of the former fascists and colaborationists as well, including for blood crimes.
- Between the late 40s and the 50s right-wing governments hegemonized by the Catholic Democratic Party (DC) and led by Alcide De Gasperi (the predaceous vulture) and then by former Interior Minister Mario Scelba (the policepig, I guess) repressed left-wing workers movements through a new and more organized police jeep-riding commandos; they strenghtened ties with Us covered operations in Europe (Scelba create an hidden insurgent force, GLADIO, to fight communist menace) and was started the political cooperation with MAFIA in Sicily (beginning with Portella della Ginestra Massacre, 1947)
3) Passive Resistance:
- Banned by the Catholic Church in 1949 (as an atheist organization) and out marched Soviet instructions (after Hungarian repression in 1956), PCI was the most relevant structure available for the Italian working class in the 50s/60s but, unable to gain the majority in general elections and gave up revolutionarism of the early 20s, it became a huge self-centered political organism, an impossible alternative in a world splitted by the two superpowers.
- Until the end of the impressive Italian post-war economic growth working conditions became harsher and harsher: production chain and heavy industrial plantations changed Italian society and urban social structures (with a biblical internal migration from rural south to the northern cities). Working class became cohesive and self-organized, able to fight and to obtain historical successes (Hot Autumn strikes,1969-70, led to a national contract for all steel workers)
- To smash Italian social cohesion and prevent the expansion of left parties, right-wing forces, economic powers and high ranking members of police and army adopted the so called Strategy of tension, a continuous succession of terrorist acts targeting civilians (lasting from Piazza Fontana Bombing in Milan in 1969 to Bologna Massacre in 1980) that boosted the armed confrontation between far-right wing and far-left wing (Years of Lead).
4) Resist to temptetions:
- With the end of Cold War communism appeared historically discredited to the Western societies. Nonethless, in the hiatus of Italian politics due to an unheard-of corruption trial (named Tangentopoli), an event that wiped off the two main players, DC and PSI (Italian Socialist Party), from the Parliament, PCI in his reincarnation named PDS (Left Democratic Party) appeared able to gain the so longed power but in 1994 the main Italian media tycoon, Silvio Berlusconi, managed to seize the power (with the alliance of a newborn separatist racist party, Lega Nord). Berlusconi affected Italian politics in the last twenty years, even if he didn’t rule continuously.
- War intervention was anew part of national discourses in the form of “peace intervention” (Kossovo 1999, Afghanistan 2001-, Iraq 2003-2011, Libya 2011) or peacekeeping (Somalia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Lebanon)
- Left wing policies focus now essentially on civil rights and peace while State repression appears on the basis of protection of public order (see 2001 G8 Genoa summit police violence). This is, anyway, a global tendency nowadays.
A Chinese girl from one of the Japanese Army’s ‘comfort battalions’ awaits interrogation at a camp in Rangoon - 8 August 1945. The term “comfort women” was a euphemism used to describe women forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese military during World War II.
Julien Bryan, Kazimiera Mika, a ten-year-old Polish girl, mourns the death of her older sister, who was killed in a field near Jana Ostroroga Street in Warsaw during a German air raid by Luftwaffe, September 1939.
Source: United States Holocaust Museum
This Day in History: Executive Order 9066 & Japanese Internment Camps
On February 19, 1942, Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 allowing the US military to create domestic exclusion zones and remove people from them.
“Within days,” the Los Angeles Times reminds us, “the military began removing all Japanese Americans and Japanese from the West Coast.
“Within months, about 110,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans – almost two-thirds of whom were U.S. citizens –were moved to internment camps scattered through eastern California, Arizona and other Western States.”
The LA Times Framework blog has a great slideshow of the images they published at that time.
Meant to reblog this yesterday, but today works too.
I remember raging that my U.S. History textbook literally only had one short, measly paragraph about the internment. This is a very important part of our history, and we should learn and remember it, unless we want to repeat it (see talks of internment of American Muslims after 9/11).
Few figures in the history of technology provoke a reaction as quickly as Wernher von Braun. The rocket scientist was a card-carrying Nazi who built the world’s first ballistic missile with slave labor from concentration camps. As the war wound down, he surrendered to the Americans and took his rocket-building team and talents to the United States. Eventually, he became a leader in the American space program, building the rocket (the Saturn V) that carried Apollo 11 to the moon. Today would have been his 100th birthday. He died in 1977.
Roger Launius, a senior curator in the Space History Division of the National Air and Space Museum, wrote a nuanced evaluation of the man’s life.
Wernher von Braun was a stunningly successful advocate for space exploration and has appropriately been celebrated for those efforts. But because he was also willing to build a ballistic missile for Hitler’s Germany, with all of connotations that implied in the devastation and terror of World War II, many of his ideals have also been appropriately questioned. For some he was a visionary who foresaw the potential of human spaceflight, but for others he was little more than an arms merchant who developed brutal weapons of mass destruction. In reality, he seems to have been something of both.
- Howard Zinn on Kurt Vonnegut (via axelgonz08)